Israel Palestinian issue

Israel Palestinian issue

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Israel Palestinian issue

Date : 22- feb-24

Mediaeval times

Rise of Ottoman Empire (16th century) 

  1. The Ottoman Empire occupied the region of Easter and southern Europe which was earlier under the Byzantine Empire. Turks occupied Constantinople and pushed Christians out. Some of them moved towards eastern Europe and Russia resulting in the emergence of orthodox church in russia.
  2. Some of them reached Italy and they took Greeks classics as a heritage of western civilization to protect from islamist. This led to renaissance in Europe which was instrumental in the emergence of Europe based on industrial revolution and superior weapons.

 

Western world always wanted to reclaim the lands which were snatched by the Ottomans, hence they always wanted to make the Ottomans weak. Gradually, the relative power of Turkey kept on declining. 

Reasons

  1.  Turkey missed industrial revolution and therefore was inferior in war technology
  2. TUrkey was engaged in constant wars with neighbouring empire, primarily Russia Empire
  3. Turkey's leadership also declined in terms of quality. 
  4. As ottoman Empire became too large it over stretch itself. It started facing internal rebellions. Balkan region became hot spot. Why? . Because of the presence of muslims and Christian with historical animosity. American started theories like national self determination. There was insurgency in balkans to free the region from ottoman. In Fact 1st world war started when a Serbian insurgent attack the prince of austria hungary.

Q. What has been policy of western countries towards turkey?

Ans. They wanted to weaken Turkey, to take revenge and to reclaim The holy land. At that time the holy land of all the 3 abrahamic religions, that is Jerusalem, was under the Ottoman Empire. One of the largest empire at it's height spreading from central Asia till eastern Mediterranean covering regions in middle east.( Levan: the boarder (where sun rises).)

As well as the region of North America.( Maghreb: eastern part.)

 It was also spreaded in southern Europe; it is said that the spread was from Danluv to Nive. It means turks were controlling one of the most important trade route that is Eastern Mediterranean. 

Between 1520 to 1566 peak year, It was under Suleman the magnificent when Ottoman came to acquire vast regions of southern and eastern Europe

Q. What was the politics of western nations

Ans. To keep both the regional rivals weal. 

  1. Russia Empire
  2. Ottoman Empire

Q. Why these to be targets?

Ans. Because of their location 

Policy of Britain is called the balance of power. Means not letting any state become too powerful to threaten others . One of the instruments of balance of power is divide and rule.

Crimean war 1852 to 1856

Russia lost badly, the other party was Turkey supported by Britain and france. Turkey's position is always important to contain russia. Hence the western countries will only want to weaken Turkey but not punishing turkey to the extent that it goes out of their influence. 

Hence after crimean war Turkey was included in the concert of Europe. 

Treaty of Paris 1856

  1. Concluded war in Crimea . Black sea to be a neutral territory means no military bases. Black sea will be close for all warships, no fortifications and no arms on the shore. 
  2. Treaty diminished russia status and diluted turkey rise. However as russia accepted the conditions, russia was returned prominent towns captured during the war in crimean region including Sebastopol

note: russia naval port is located of Sevastopol in crimea it station russia black sea fleet. Through russia accepted demilitarisation in treaty of paris but russian Turkish war kept on happening as a result russia remilitarise Sevastopol

Turkey during 1st world war

Turkey made the strategic blunder by joining the side of austro hungarian empire on the protects of thinking, that will help turkey to retain the controls in balkan regions

In the 1st world war western power defeated the ottoman Empire, turkey suffered huge losses and signed armistice with Britain in 1918.

1920 treaty of sevres 

Turkey territory was partitioned and were to be divided among European states like Russia, France, Britain and Greece.

Note: since then there is a dispute between Greece and Turkey over control of Cyprus. Cyprus is an island in the Mediterranean with a mixed population, Greeks And Turks initially it came under control of the greece. Later on Turkey invaded Cyprus and it established control over part of Cyprus. 

Ottoman Empire territory in west Asia was divided between Britain and France , Palestine became a British mandate.

Treaty of lausanne 1923

In treaty of sevres Britishers humiliated the sultan of turkey by sending him off from istanbul in a british warship. This hurt the pride of Turkish nationalist. Mustafa kamal pasa started war again. Turkish is important to contain russia therefore in order to appease Mustafa kamal another treaty was signed by which some of the territories were given back. The treaty of Lausanne is responsible for recognition of Turkey as an independent state. It is comparatively more favourable but the same time some restriction are also introduced like turkey can not drill oil

Turkey in 2nd world war

in the 2nd world war Turkey joined the side of the allies. It consolidated the relations between Turkey and the western countries. Turkey joined nato in 1952 became the 2nd largest true contributor to nato. Turkey also became the member of a middle east defence organisation.

Member countries

  1. Us
  2. Uk
  3. France
  4. Turkey
  5. Iran
  6. Pakistan

Origin of israel

From the very beginning the western countries wanted to bring this strategic region in eastern Mediterranean under their control. Jewish cause gave them an excuse. It is believed that jews were expelled from the region, they became refugees in European countries.

anti-Semitism: it is a term coined by willmmarr to point out strong anti Jewish sentiment prevailing in different countries of Europe. Countries like Russia used to have anti Jewish laws. At the same time

Started creating the dream of homeland for jews.

Zionist movement

Jews also started organising themselves and started talking about the jewish state . It is believed that Theodore hergel gave the concept of jews State. Gradually the sentiment to legitimise a separate state for jews started emerging But jews had to pay heavy price role of Hitler. 

Hitler offered the final solution to jewish problem.

Known as holocaust. 

Holocaust: systematic State sponsored killing around 6 million jews.

1917 balfour declaration: the British government suddenly announced that they support jewish demand for a separate homeland.

 1918: region came under control of british from ottoman Empire 

1922: League of Nations also approved creation of a homeland for jews . Uptill now jews were small in number and living peacefully with Arab neighbours. After the Balfour declaration and the region coming under the British the scale of immigration increased. Gradually the riots started between the Arabs and jews at a small scale. 

1947: , UN general assembly resolution 181 known as UN partition plan . The mandate of Palestine at that time under british to be divided between

  1. Jewish state
  2. Arab state or Palestine
  3. City of Jerusalem to be under international control.

NOTE :  india opposes the creation of israel. Views of Gandhi. Palestine belongs to Arabs just like France belongs to French and England belongs to English speaking people.

Pandit nehru:  also strongly oppose 

Q. Why does India oppose it?

And. It is assumed that views of nehru and gandhi were driven by two factors

  1. In principle india was against creation of state of the ground of religion (Pakistan factor)
  2. Domestic determinant , the sentiments of Muslim minorities. 

It was seen as Muslim appeasement by anti congress factions.

Q. What was the real reason?

Ans. Gandhi was not an idealist , Gandhi was a very practical politician. Gandhi knew that security of west asia and india is interlinked , he also knew that once israel will be created it will lead to permanent instability in the region, that is not good for india. 

Q. What was the after effect of the declaration of creation of israel. 

Ans. Beginning of cold war in the middle east, rivalry between USA and USSR. The USSR never wanted a US military outpost in the east Mediterranean. Ussr looked at it is a containment of russia. Russias entering into the outside world is through

  1. Black sea ( turkey is containing russia here)
  2. Outside black sea is the Mediterranean sea.
  3. Russia contains both north and south.

north: European countries

South: Israel

Hence Russia provoked the Arab states of levans region against israel.

Nakba: arabic word for catastrophe

The day Israel's creation was announced it led to the mass movement of Palestinian out of the region, being fearful of the war . They became refugees in the neighbouring countries 

Like lebanon syria jordan Egypt

1948: first arab israeli war 

5 Arab states led by Egypt invaded israel. Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and iraq.

Britishers had left by that time and created israel defence forces.

Arabs were defeated in the war and Israel expanded the area , more than 30% that was the original area. 

1950: Israel became a member of UN , later on India also recognised Israel, it was recognised without diplomatic relation. Pandit nehru held that israel is the fact and we have to accept

Q. Whether there was a difference between the congress and the rightist parties like hindu mahasabha on the question of israel.

 

Raj Singh

Hi There. I'm a professional Educator Cum Entrepreneur. Have done Technical as well as Professional Degree, Having Experience of 10 years as Educator and 8 Years of Entrepreneurship.

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