Concept of international relation

Concept of international relation

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International relations

Date : 19 Feb

Introduction to international relations

It is one of the youngest discipline. Youngest means it started after 1st World War. The first chair (post of Professor) in IR was opened at University of Wales. In 1919 known as Woodrow Wilson Chair The president of usa can be considered as the founder of discipline.

What is the purpose of  International relation as discipline ?

According to Woodrow Wilson the purpose is to stabilise New World Order

What is world order

One of the core concepts in international politics. World order is understood in two ways:

  1. In descriptive sense :  How power is distributed around the globe For example, it can be multipolar unipolar bipolar or even apolar (Means there is no pole or concentration of power, Their power is diffused)
  2. In normative sense : The normative values means values on which world order is based

What does the Tom New World Order used by Woodrow Wilson define

In order to understand Woodrow Wilson, New World Order, we have to understand what was Old World Order

 

Evaluation of world orders

  1. From 1648 to 1919 first world order

Also known as Westphalian World Order This is considered by Wilson as Old World Order. And in 1919 he introduced his vision of New World Order

  1. From 1919 to 1945 Second World Order
  2. From 1945 to 1991 bipolar world Cold War
  3. 1991 to 2001 Unipolar word
  4. 2001 to till present Multipolar world or rise of rest (BRICKS) or decline of west(US).

Woodrow Wilson, New World Order

This was his aspiration to replace Old World Order For example, 1648 to 1919 Westphalian World Order

Salient features of Westphalian World Order

International politics was hardly international or global because it was confined to Europe, thus world politics during this time was politics among European nations

Why?

Rest of the world was colony, and hence they had no independent politics. For example, wars between British and French in India were the extension of their rivalries in Europe

 

The usa became independent in 1776. Yet usa did not involve itself involved world politics.

This policy of usa is called as isolationism.

Till 1919 US did not involve itself in World Affairs This policy is called as Monroe Doctrine There are two elements of their doctrine

  1. Us will not involve itself in world affairs
  2. Us will ensure its hegemony in the region, or American continent.

It means US will not tolerate the presence of any external power (European power)

Note: Indra-Rajiv doctrine is an Indian version of Monroe Doctrine.

 

What were the features of European politics

There were five or six major powers in Europe like

Britain, France, Prussia, Spain, Poland, Dutch

International politics was great power politics

What was the pattern in politics among nations

Pattern was there used to be regular wars This led to the principle of international politics, that international politics, nations are in the state of war or in the preparation of wars

The nature of war has changed consistently It has become more and more destructive with the advancement of Technology

First World War led to such A scale of destruction that compelled policy makers to think about the alternatives Means how to end war Oregon, how to bring peace Whirl peace is the objective of the discipline of international politics

 

What is the objective of theories in ir?

How to establish peace. So ir theories are peace theories, or peace studies

What was the normative principle of Westphalian World Order

In fact, treaty of waste failure is the first text in international law It stabilises the first principle Of international law. Treaty of waste failure stabilised sovereignty as Sacrosanct (Sacred principle)

Sovereign tea mince territorial integrity

It means every state has absolute right to protect their sovereignity Means they can go to any extent for self defence Even the extent of war, including the use of weapon of mass destruction

Why Westphalian World Order age war prone?

Westfall in World Order is anarchical (Absence of world government or any international order) Hence, security of the state depends upon self help.

What is the way to self help?

Since there is no world government and international law is voluntary in nature (no guarantee of enforcement). Hence, the only way one state can ensure is self help is through power. The ultimate determinant of power is hard power That is military power It requires arms. When there are arms war is inevitable

New World Order

Way to change the Old World Order

Because Westphalian World Order Age War prone. Wilson proposed an alternative to Westphalian World Order That is liberal world order

The features of liberal world order come from the 14 points a speech given by Woodrow Wilson in us. Congress

 

Woodrow Wilson proposed the establishment of League of nation. The first attempt to build world government in future

According to Wilson International organisation would convert the jungle of international politics into Zoo Means establishment of certain norms to be absorbed. Even norms to be absorbed during war.

For example Geneva Conventions

 

Woodrow Wilson proposed the idea of collective security, replacing the balance of power Politics observed international politics Westphalian World Order is based on self help Principle of collective security means security of one is also the concern of other

It means security can be collective concern

League of nation to be institution for Operationalising collective security.

League of nation – Collective security :- Multilateralism (Internationalism)

 

Freedom of trade and freedom of navigation. Why This ?

Because he believed that reason for First World War was protectionism.

Countries war protectionist

Protection of rights of the people

Which rights?

Right to self determination means right to have independent nation If people want to create an independent nation of their own, we should be recognising the right. Means international community should recognise the right of self determination If a state opposes international community should support the right of the people for their independence (For their human rights and democracy) : plebiscite

NOTE : Weather India support principal of National Self Determination

Not now.

Why Indian oppose the principle of national self-determination advocated by usa

Because usa did not support the demand of Indians during freedom struggles.

4 principles

  1. Multilateralism
  2. Freedom of a trate
  3. Freedom of navigation
  4. Democracy and human rights

Normality principle of Liberal World Order They are also core principle of us. Foreign policy

Note: At present, China is destroying the Liberal World Order (rule based order)

Who made the rules

Usa

What is the present stand of India

Today’s India is at the forefront of protecting the core principles of liberal world order US calls India as net security provider in the region

  1. At present, India is committed for protection of multilateralism (Maximum focus)
  2. Protection of free trade
  3. Freedom of navigation(Maritime security), Indian navy is a net security provider in Indian Ocean region
  4. Democracy and human rights (confused)

US wants us to be proactive in supporting

  1. Human rights violation of Tibet
  2. Human rights of uigher Muslims in Xinxiang in China

Even in case of rights of people of Baluchistan, India has not been as forthcoming as human right violation as it to be.

Is US committed about rights of self determination

Us is selective in its approach. It supported the right of self-determination of Jews, but is not as supportive as the rights of Palestinian though at present, in principle, us accept two state solution.

What is the real intention behind the emergence of concept of New World Order?

What is the real motive behind the emergence of the discipline of International relations?

What is international relation?

International relation is American social science. Majority of the scholars are from usa. There are some non American schools also.

English school

Post colonial school. They give 3rd World perspective

 

What is international relation

It is a subject by Americans for Americans

Objectives

To advance the goals of us. Foreign policy

What are the theories of international politics

There prescriptions for us. Foreign policy

What is the goal of us? Foreign policy

Us hegemony.

Raj Singh

Hi There. I'm a professional Educator Cum Entrepreneur. Have done Technical as well as Professional Degree, Having Experience of 10 years as Educator and 8 Years of Entrepreneurship.

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